德存,

Name
/鄭/德存
Given names
德存
Surname
China Government/Dynasties
Three Kingdoms
from 220 to 280

Source:
Note: The end of the Han dynasty was marked by the separation of the large families of that dynasty. The f…

The end of the Han dynasty was marked by the separation of the large families of that dynasty. The families took advantage of the weakened state of the government and started to establish their own private armies. Division into three states: Wei, Shu, Wu. The Wei gradually dominant. Confucianism was eclipsed; increased importance of Taoism and Buddhism. Many scientific advances adopted from India.source

China Government/Dynasties
Northern and Southern Dynasties
from 386 to 589

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China Government/Dynasties
Jin or Chin Dynasty
from 386 to 589

Source:
Note: Founded by a Wei general; gradual expansion to the southeast. Series of barbarian dynasties ruled N…

Founded by a Wei general; gradual expansion to the southeast. Series of barbarian dynasties ruled N China. Continued growth of Buddhism. source

China Government/Dynasties
Sui Dynasty
from 581 to 618

Source:
Note: Reunification and centralized government reestablished. Even though Confucianism was officially endo…

Reunification and centralized government reestablished. Even though Confucianism was officially endorsed, Taoism and Buddhism were acknowledged in formulating a new ideology for the empire. During this time, Buddhism flourished. Great Wall was refortified and the canal system established. source

China Government/Dynasties
Tang Dynasty
from 618 to 907

Source:
Note: The Tang dynasty is regarded as the highest point of Chinese civilization. The country was at its la…

The Tang dynasty is regarded as the highest point of Chinese civilization. The country was at its largest and wealthiest. Its new-found confidence was reflected particularly in its art and literature. Porcelain became more refined; poetry reached its peak and poems written during the period are still quoted by Chinese today. During the Tang dynasty, Buddhism declined, and Confucianism became more popular. Even though Buddhism was at its peak during the early Tang dynasty, many of the Tang officials were of the Confucian discipline and regarded Buddhism as a disruptive force in China. So, in 845, the Tang emperor started a full-scale persecution of Buddhists. More than 4600 monasteries and 40,000 temples and shrines were destroyed. Other religious groups were also brought under government control. Civil service examinations were based on Confucianism. source

China Government/Dynasties
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period
from 907 to 979

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Note: Period of warfare, official corruption, general hardship.
China Government/Dynasties
Liao Dynasty
from 916 to 1125

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China Government/Dynasties
Song or Sung Dynasty
from 960 to 1279

Source:
Note: Period of great social and intellectual change: Neo-Confucianism attains supremacy over Taoism and B…

Period of great social and intellectual change: Neo-Confucianism attains supremacy over Taoism and Buddhism; central bureaucracy reestablished. Widespread cultivation of tea and cotton; gunpowder first used militarily. This was also the golden age of Chinese painting. Militarily however, the Song empire remained weak, preferring diplomacy to warfare. In 1125, the empire was overrun by the Jin, forcing the emperor to flee south. In 1275, China fell to the Mongols. source

China Government/Dynasties
Yuan Dynasty
from 1271 to 1368

Source:
Note: Yuan dynasty of ethnic Mongols. Started by Mongol dynasty founded by [Kublai Khan](https://en.wikip…

Yuan dynasty of ethnic Mongols. Started by Mongol dynasty founded by Kublai Khan. The Mongols brought China a very different culture. They excluded Chinese from government and placed restrictions on trade. Confucian ideals discouraged intellectuals who would previously have been called to the court or made officials turned to the arts and in particular to Chinese opera which flourished even under Mongol censorship. But while drama developed, China regressed. State revenues shrunk, canal building sucked up money and the country grew poorer. Many missionaries and merchants influenced the Chinese. The most notable foreigner that visited during this time was Marco Polo. Revolts in Mongolia and S China end dynasty. source

China Government/Dynasties
Ming Dynasty
from 1368 to 1644

Source:
Note: Mongols expelled. Confucianism, civil service examinations, reinstated. Ming power was great and sta…

Mongols expelled. Confucianism, civil service examinations, reinstated. Ming power was great and started to re-establish a tribute among the nonChinese states of East Asia. This tribute required that these states acknowledge the moral and cultural supremacy of the Chinese. In the first quarter of the 15th century, the Ming had decisively defeated the Mongol tribes. This was also a period of naval exploration, at least for a while. Chinese ships reached Africa and maritime Asian nations arrived with tribute. These foreign contacts however, were short-lived and China retreated

China Government/Dynasties
Han Dynasty
from to

Source:
Note: Unification furthered, but harshness lessened and Confucianism made
China Government/Dynasties
Qin or Chin Dynasty
from to

Source:
Note: Zhou rulers had made it a policy to decentralize power, creating a network of powerful lords who fir…

Zhou rulers had made it a policy to decentralize power, creating a network of powerful lords who first overthrew the Zhou ruler and then competed for the throne. The winner was Shi Huangdi. The self proclaimed first emperor not only unified China, but went about standardizing writing, weights, and measures throughout his kingdom. This was used to promote internal trade among the newly acquired states. During this time, many schools of thought were outlawed; only Legalism was given official sanction. The only way for emperor to keep his nation

China Government/Dynasties
Zhou Dynasty
from to

Source:
Note: Classical age despite political disorder. Written laws, money economy. Iron implements and ox-drawn…

Classical age despite political disorder. Written laws, money economy. Iron implements and ox-drawn plows were used. Leaders’ authority were derived from the ‘mandate of heaven’. As long as the ruler, the ‘Son of Heaven,’ was just and fulfilled his sacred duties, the mandate would be maintained. Tyranny however would result in the mandate being withdrawn and the ruler overthrown. It was during the Zhou dynasty that Chinese ideas of morality and just rule were first written. This was the period of Confucius and his follower Mencius, the rise of Daoism and the concept of harmony expressed in the balance of yin and yang. Followed by Warring States period, 480–221 B.C.E. http://mrfarshtey.net/whnotes/CHINESE_DYNASTIES.pdf

Event
Great Clearance
from 1661 to 1669

Source:
Note: The Qing dynasty edict that cleared 50 li (~15.5 miles) from the coast of China next to Taiwan. Here…

The Qing dynasty edict that cleared 50 li (~15.5 miles) from the coast of China next to Taiwan. Here were based loyalists of the prior Ming dynasty

1st President of the United States
George Washington
April 30, 1789

2nd President of the United States
John Adams
March 4, 1797

3rd President of the United States
Thomas Jefferson
March 4, 1801

4th President of the United States
James Madison
March 4, 1809

5th President of the United States
James Monroe
March 4, 1817

6th President of the United States
John Quincy Adams
March 4, 1825

7th President of the United States
Andrew Jackson
March 4, 1829

8th President of the United States
Martin Van Buren
March 4, 1837

Chinese Conflicts
First Opium War
from September 4, 1839

Source:
Note: Great Britain since the 18th century consumed a lot of Chinese tea. There were no manufactured goods…

Great Britain since the 18th century consumed a lot of Chinese tea. There were no manufactured goods from England that the Chinese desired. The tea had to be purchased by English silver, which caused a drop in reserves. Britain then introduced opium from the British East India Company, and found a ready market in an addicted China. Sensing the destructions of their social fabric, Qing emperors fought and lost to the British this war.

9th President of the United States
William Henry Harrison
March 4, 1841

10th President of the United States
John Tyler
April 4, 1841

11th President of the United States
James K Polk
March 4, 1845

12th President of the United States
Zachary Taylor
March 4, 1849

13th President of the United States
Millard Fillmore
July 9, 1850

14th President of the United States
Franklin Pierce
March 4, 1853

Event
California Gold Rush
from January 24, 1848 to 1855

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Chinese Conflicts
Punti–Hakka Clan Wars
1855

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Chinese Conflicts
Red Turban Rebellion
from 1854 to 1856

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15th President of the United States
James Buchanan
March 4, 1857

Chinese Conflicts
Second Opium War
from October 8, 1856 to October 24, 1860

Source:
Note: The contestants were the Qing empire against a consortium of American and European powers. Again the…

The contestants were the Qing empire against a consortium of American and European powers. Again the Qing were defeated and lost port cities to the control of the western powers.

16th President of the United States
Abraham Lincoln
March 4, 1861

Chinese Conflicts
Taiping Rebellion
from December 1850 to August 1864

Source:
Note: The bloodiest civil war in history with upwards to 70 million killed, between the Qing empire and a…

The bloodiest civil war in history with upwards to 70 million killed, between the Qing empire and a theocratic Christian based society. The Qing had to seek help from France and the United Kingdom. This weakened the central Qing government and saw the rise of warlords.

17th President of the United States
Andrew Johnson
April 15, 1865

18th President of the United States
Ulysses S Grant
March 4, 1869

Event
First transcontinental railroad
from 1863 to May 10, 1869

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19th President of the United States
Rutherford B Hayes
March 4, 1877

20th President of the United States
James A Garfield
March 4, 1881

21st President of the United States
Chester A Arthur
September 19, 1881

22nd President of the United States
Grover Cleveland
March 4, 1885

23rd President of the United States
Benjamin Harrison
March 4, 1889

24th President of the United States
Grover Cleveland
March 4, 1893

Chinese Conflicts
First Sino-Japanese War
from July 25, 1894 to April 17, 1895

Source:
Note: This conflict represented failure of the Qing dynasty's military modernization versus Imperial Japan…

This conflict represented failure of the Qing dynasty's military modernization versus Imperial Japan Meiji Restoration's military advancement. The result was ceding of Taiwan and Korea to Japan.

25th President of the United States
William McKinley
March 4, 1897

Chinese Conflicts
Boxer Rebellion
from November 2, 1899 to September 7, 1901

Source:
Note: An anti-foreigner rebellion of Chinese peasants and eventually the Qing empire against a consortium…

An anti-foreigner rebellion of Chinese peasants and eventually the Qing empire against a consortium of western and Japanese troops.

26th President of the United States
Theodore Roosevelt
September 14, 1901

27th President of the United States
William Howard Taft
March 4, 1909

China Government/Dynasties
Qing or Ching or Manchu Dynasty
from 1636 to 1912

Source:
Note: 2nd foreign dynasty to rule China—Unlike the Mongols however, the Manchu adopted Chinese dress and c…

2nd foreign dynasty to rule China—Unlike the Mongols however, the Manchu adopted Chinese dress and customs. However, they did force men to wear the queue. Neo-Confucianism was made the official doctrine, demanding loyalty to the emperor, but Chinese culture was preserved and Chinese were excluded only from the very senior court positions. Increasing European trade causedforeign powers divide China into spheres of influence. The Boxer uprising caused the downfall of this last dynasty. source

Chinese American Events
1906 San Francisco earthquake
April 18, 1906

Source:
Note: Public birth records were destroyed in the subsequent fire, which allowed a new opportunity for Chin…

Public birth records were destroyed in the subsequent fire, which allowed a new opportunity for Chinese to claim American citizenship.

28th President of the United States
Woodrow Wilson
March 4, 1913

29th President of the United States
Warren G Harding
March 4, 1921

30th President of the United States
Calvin Coolidge
August 2, 1923

31st President of the United States
Herbert Hoover
March 4, 1929

Chinese American Events
Tong Wars
from 1800 to 1930

Source:
Note: These started as conflicts between clans and sensationalized by American media as gang and turf urba…

These started as conflicts between clans and sensationalized by American media as gang and turf urban warfare.

Event
Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association (Six Companies)
after 1851

Source:
Note: Many reasons for these Associations to exist 1. insurance 2. protection 3. companionship 4. [ancesto…

Many reasons for these Associations to exist 1. insurance 2. protection 3. companionship 4. ancestor veneration

Chinese Conflicts
Mukden Incident
from September 18, 1931 to February 18, 1932

Source:
Note: Imperial Japan starts to subjugate Manchuria for natural resources and living space. Japan wanted a…

Imperial Japan starts to subjugate Manchuria for natural resources and living space. Japan wanted a Great Britan like empire calling it the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. The Japan's defeat to the Soviet during the Battles of Khalkhin Gol set the stage for the Japan's Pearl Harbor attack and war with the United States.

Chinese American Events
Chinese Exclusion Act
from May 9, 1882 to 1943

Source:
Note: An official act legalizing discrimination against Chinese in the United States. [Poster: 'Chinese Mu…

An official act legalizing discrimination against Chinese in the United States. Poster: 'Chinese Must Go'.

China Government/Dynasties
Republic of China
from 1912 to 1949

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Global conflict
World War I
from July 28, 1914 to November 11, 1918

Source:
Note: China's [contribution to World War One](https://bacgg.org/index.php/resources/#ww1 )
Economic
1929 Great Depression
from 1929 to 1930

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Note: Worldwide economic downturn.
32nd President of the United States
Franklin D Roosevelt
March 4, 1933

Chinese Conflicts
Second Sino-Japanese War
from July 7, 1937 to September 9, 1945

Source:
Note: Some historians consider this the true start of World War Two. Japan's attempt to conquer China, aft…

Some historians consider this the true start of World War Two. Japan's attempt to conquer China, after subjugating Manchukuo.

World Conflict
Attack on Pearl Harbor
from December 7, 1941

Source:
Note: The date the United States enters WW2.
33rd President of the United States
Harry S Truman
April 12, 1945

Global Conflict
World War II
from September 1, 1939 to September 2, 1945

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Note: Western world's time period for World War II.
Chinese Conflicts
Chinese Communist/Kuomintang Civil War
from August 10, 1945 to December 7, 1949

Source:
Note: This represented the defeat and withdrawal of the Kuomintang to Taiwan by Mao Zedong
China Government/Dynasties
People's Republic of China
1949

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Chinese American Events
McCarthyism
from 1940 to 1950

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Note: An example of memes and slogans during this time was 'better dead than red' and the [Domino theory](…

An example of memes and slogans during this time was 'better dead than red' and the Domino theory

Chinese American Events
Internment of Japanese Americans
from February 19, 1942 to March 20, 1946

Source:
Note: Another example of anti-Asian sentiment in the United States.
34th President of the United States
Dwight D Eisenhower
January 20, 1953

Chinese American Conflicts
Korean War
from June 25, 1950 to July 27, 1953

Source:
35th President of the United States
John F Kennedy
January 20, 1961

36th President of the United States
Lyndon B Johnson
November 22, 1963

American Conflicts
Vietnam War
from November 1, 1955 to April 30, 1975

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American INS program
Chinese Confession Program
from 1956 to 1965

Source:
Note: A program of the Immigration and Naturalization Service allowing reconciliation of the illegal entry…

A program of the Immigration and Naturalization Service allowing reconciliation of the illegal entry status of paper sons. This caused much fear and distrust among the Chinese American population. The number of participants were less than initially predicted.

37th President of the United States
Richard Nixon
January 20, 1969

38th President of the United States
Gerald Ford
August 9, 1974

Chinese Events
Cultural Revolution
from 1949 to 1976

Source:
Note: The wanton distruction of Chinese clan genealogy documents along with cultural relics by the Red Gua…

The wanton distruction of Chinese clan genealogy documents along with cultural relics by the Red Guards made tracing Chinese Americans family heritage even harder. This represented Mao Zedong' s attempt to regain local control of China.

39th President of the United States
Jimmy Carter
January 20, 1977

40th President of the United States
Ronald Reagan
January 20, 1981

41st President of the United States
George H W Bush
January 20, 1989

42nd President of the United States
Bill Clinton
January 20, 1993

43rd President of the United States
George W Bush
January 20, 2001

44th President of the United States
Barack Obama
January 20, 2009

45th President of the United States
Donald Trump
January 20, 2017

Chinese American Events\n2 DATE 18 APR 1906
San Francisco earthquake

Source:
Death
Yes