/吳/ 氏
Name suffix
Death of a husband
China Government/Dynasties
Ming Dynasty
from 1368 to 1644
Note: Source citation: Ming Dynasty Wikipedia
Note: Mongols expelled. Confucianism, civil service examinations, reinstated. Ming power was great and started to re-establish a tribute among the nonChinese states of East Asia. This tribute required that these states acknowledge the moral and cultural supremacy of the Chinese. In the first quarter of the 15th century, the Ming had decisively defeated the Mongol tribes. This was also a period of naval exploration, at least for a while. Chinese ships reached Africa and maritime Asian nations arrived with tribute. These foreign contacts however, were short-lived and China retreated
China Government/Dynasties
Qing or Ching or Manchu Dynasty
from 1636 to 1912
Note: Source citation: Qing Dynasty Wikipedia
Note: 2nd foreign dynasty to rule China—Unlike the Mongols however, the Manchu adopted Chinese dress and customs. However, they did force men to wear the queue. Neo-Confucianism was made the official doctrine, demanding loyalty to the emperor, but Chinese culture was preserved and Chinese were excluded only from the very senior court positions. Increasing European trade causedforeign powers divide China into spheres of influence. The Boxer uprising caused the downfall of this last dynasty. source