Joe Hip, 18811965 (aged 83 years)

Name
Joe /Hip/
Type
immigration name
Given names
Joe
Surname
Hip
Name
/周/朝佐
Type
Given names
朝佐
Surname
Name
/周/恊
Given names
Surname
Name
/JOE/ Yip Yee
Given names
Yip Yee
Surname
JOE
Name
/周/官恊
Type
Given names
官恊
Surname
Birth between June 7, 1881 and June 14, 188407:00
Address: 中国 (China) 广东省 (Guangdong Province) 中山市 (Zhong Shan) 大同鄉 Tai Tung Heung-based on Sa Kai market in Village Database 沙溪区 (Sa Kai District or market) 龙头环村 (Long Tau Wan village) From Village Database: 樂群鄉 Lok Kwan Heung Market(s) 沙溪 Sar Kai Map Location GQ 3795
Education
Speaks English

MarriageMary Shaken JoeView this family
Yes

Occupation
Manager

Address: , , Ogden, UT, USA
Employer: China Toggery; National Dollar Store
21st President of the United States
Chester A Arthur
September 19, 1881 (aged 3 months)

22nd President of the United States
Grover Cleveland
March 4, 1885 (aged 3 years)

23rd President of the United States
Benjamin Harrison
March 4, 1889 (aged 7 years)

Death of a paternal grandfatherZHOU Jian Ting
189020:00 (aged 8 years)

24th President of the United States
Grover Cleveland
March 4, 1893 (aged 11 years)

Chinese Conflicts
First Sino-Japanese War
from July 25, 1894 to April 17, 1895 (aged 13 years)

Source:
Note: This conflict represented failure of the Qing dynasty's military modernization versus Imperial Japan…

This conflict represented failure of the Qing dynasty's military modernization versus Imperial Japan Meiji Restoration's military advancement. The result was ceding of Taiwan and Korea to Japan.

25th President of the United States
William McKinley
March 4, 1897 (aged 15 years)

Chinese Conflicts
Boxer Rebellion
from November 2, 1899 to September 7, 1901 (aged 20 years)

Source:
Note: An anti-foreigner rebellion of Chinese peasants and eventually the Qing empire against a consortium…

An anti-foreigner rebellion of Chinese peasants and eventually the Qing empire against a consortium of western and Japanese troops.

26th President of the United States
Theodore Roosevelt
September 14, 1901 (aged 20 years)

Death of a paternal grandmotherLIU Shee
190302:00 (aged 21 years)

Death of a fatherJoe Min
1909 (aged 27 years)

27th President of the United States
William Howard Taft
March 4, 1909 (aged 27 years)

Death of a motherLOWE Shee
December 8, 1911 (aged 30 years)

China Government/Dynasties
Qing or Ching or Manchu Dynasty
from 1636 to 1912 (aged 30 years)

Source:
Note: 2nd foreign dynasty to rule China—Unlike the Mongols however, the Manchu adopted Chinese dress and c…

2nd foreign dynasty to rule China—Unlike the Mongols however, the Manchu adopted Chinese dress and customs. However, they did force men to wear the queue. Neo-Confucianism was made the official doctrine, demanding loyalty to the emperor, but Chinese culture was preserved and Chinese were excluded only from the very senior court positions. Increasing European trade causedforeign powers divide China into spheres of influence. The Boxer uprising caused the downfall of this last dynasty. source

Chinese American Events
1906 San Francisco earthquake
April 18, 1906 (aged 24 years)

Source:
Note: Public birth records were destroyed in the subsequent fire, which allowed a new opportunity for Chin…

Public birth records were destroyed in the subsequent fire, which allowed a new opportunity for Chinese to claim American citizenship.

28th President of the United States
Woodrow Wilson
March 4, 1913 (aged 31 years)

Birth of a daughterWai Hing Wong
November 4, 1914 (aged 33 years)
Birth of a daughterPauline Wong
November 15, 1915 (aged 34 years)
Global conflict
World War I
from July 28, 1914 to November 11, 1918 (aged 37 years)

Source:
Note: China's [contribution to World War One](https://bacgg.org/index.php/resources/#ww1 )
29th President of the United States
Warren G Harding
March 4, 1921 (aged 39 years)

Birth of a sonHenry Low Joe
August 24, 1922 (aged 41 years)
續 (续)PANG YatNganView this family
1923 (aged 41 years)

30th President of the United States
Calvin Coolidge
August 2, 1923 (aged 42 years)

Birth of a daughterSin Hing Woo
December 17, 1924 (aged 43 years)

Birth of a sonFred JOE
December 24, 1925 (aged 44 years)
31st President of the United States
Herbert Hoover
March 4, 1929 (aged 47 years)

Chinese American Events
Tong Wars
from 1800 to 1930 (aged 48 years)

Source:
Note: These started as conflicts between clans and sensationalized by American media as gang and turf urba…

These started as conflicts between clans and sensationalized by American media as gang and turf urban warfare.

Chinese Conflicts
Mukden Incident
from September 18, 1931 to February 18, 1932 (aged 50 years)

Source:
Note: Imperial Japan starts to subjugate Manchuria for natural resources and living space. Japan wanted a…

Imperial Japan starts to subjugate Manchuria for natural resources and living space. Japan wanted a Great Britan like empire calling it the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. The Japan's defeat to the Soviet during the Battles of Khalkhin Gol set the stage for the Japan's Pearl Harbor attack and war with the United States.

Birth of a grandsonWing Wong
February 11, 1933 (aged 51 years)

32nd President of the United States
Franklin D Roosevelt
March 4, 1933 (aged 51 years)

Birth of a granddaughterSusan Chow
August 18, 1939 (aged 58 years)

Birth of a grandsonPeter Jeung Wong
December 10, 1940 (aged 59 years)

Chinese American Events
Chinese Exclusion Act
from May 9, 1882 to 1943 (aged 61 years)

Source:
Note: An official act legalizing discrimination against Chinese in the United States. [Poster: 'Chinese Mu…

An official act legalizing discrimination against Chinese in the United States. Poster: 'Chinese Must Go'.

33rd President of the United States
Harry S Truman
April 12, 1945 (aged 63 years)

Chinese Conflicts
Second Sino-Japanese War
from July 7, 1937 to September 9, 1945 (aged 64 years)

Source:
Note: Some historians consider this the true start of World War Two. Japan's attempt to conquer China, aft…

Some historians consider this the true start of World War Two. Japan's attempt to conquer China, after subjugating Manchukuo.

Chinese Conflicts
Chinese Communist/Kuomintang Civil War
from August 10, 1945 to December 7, 1949 (aged 68 years)

Source:
Note: This represented the defeat and withdrawal of the Kuomintang to Taiwan by Mao Zedong
China Government/Dynasties
Republic of China
from 1912 to 1949 (aged 67 years)

Source:
Economic
1929 Great Depression
from 1929 to 1930 (aged 48 years)

Source:
Note: Worldwide economic downturn.
World Conflict
Attack on Pearl Harbor
from December 7, 1941 (aged 60 years)

Source:
Note: The date the United States enters WW2.
Global Conflict
World War II
from September 1, 1939 to September 2, 1945 (aged 64 years)

Source:
Note: Western world's time period for World War II.
China Government/Dynasties
People's Republic of China
1949 (aged 67 years)

Source:
Chinese American Events
McCarthyism
from 1940 to 1950 (aged 68 years)

Source:
Note: An example of memes and slogans during this time was 'better dead than red' and the [Domino theory](…

An example of memes and slogans during this time was 'better dead than red' and the Domino theory

Chinese American Events
Internment of Japanese Americans
from February 19, 1942 to March 20, 1946 (aged 64 years)

Source:
Note: Another example of anti-Asian sentiment in the United States.
34th President of the United States
Dwight D Eisenhower
January 20, 1953 (aged 71 years)

Chinese American Conflicts
Korean War
from June 25, 1950 to July 27, 1953 (aged 72 years)

Source:
35th President of the United States
John F Kennedy
January 20, 1961 (aged 79 years)

36th President of the United States
Lyndon B Johnson
November 22, 1963 (aged 82 years)

Death of a wifePANG YatNgan
about 1965 (aged 83 years)

American Conflicts
Vietnam War
from November 1, 1955 to April 30, 1975 (aged 93 years)

Source:
Chinese Events
Cultural Revolution
from 1949 to 1976 (aged 94 years)

Source:
Note: The wanton distruction of Chinese clan genealogy documents along with cultural relics by the Red Gua…

The wanton distruction of Chinese clan genealogy documents along with cultural relics by the Red Guards made tracing Chinese Americans family heritage even harder. This represented Mao Zedong' s attempt to regain local control of China.

American INS program
Chinese Confession Program
from 1956 to 1965 (aged 83 years)

Source:
Note: A program of the Immigration and Naturalization Service allowing reconciliation of the illegal entry…

A program of the Immigration and Naturalization Service allowing reconciliation of the illegal entry status of paper sons. This caused much fear and distrust among the Chinese American population. The number of participants were less than initially predicted.

Description
5'6"

Death about 1965 (aged 83 years)
Family with parents
father
Great Grandfather Joe
壽騫
18551909
Birth: March 22, 1855龙头环, 石岐, 香山, 广东, CHN
Death: 1909
mother
Lowe Shee
文舉
18581911
Birth: September 8, 1858谿角鄕, Guangdong, CHN
Death: December 8, 1911
CHN
sister
himself
139240061-1926.jpg
朝佐
18811965
Birth: between June 7, 1881 and June 14, 1884龙头环, 石岐, 香山, 广东, CHN
Death: about 1965Los Angeles, CA, USA
Family with Mary Shaken Joe
himself
139240061-1926.jpg
朝佐
18811965
Birth: between June 7, 1881 and June 14, 1884龙头环, 石岐, 香山, 广东, CHN
Death: about 1965Los Angeles, CA, USA
wife
Mary Shaken Joe
淑娴
18981997
Birth: October 30, 1898龙头环-石岐-香山, 广东, CHN
Death: January 27, 1997Los Angeles, CA, USA
Marriage Marriage
daughter
139240015.jpg
惠卿
1914
Birth: November 4, 1914Zhongshan, CHN
Death: Los Angeles, CA, USA
13 months
daughter
139239941.jpg
蘭卿
19152008
Birth: November 15, 1915Zhongshan, CHN
Death: August 9, 2008Glendale, CA, USA
7 years
son
Henry Joe 1946 engagement picture
文輝
19221998
Birth: August 24, 1922龙头环, 石岐, 香山, 广东, CHN
Death: November 18, 1998Los Angeles, CA, USA
2 years
daughter
139239239-1.JPG
倩卿
19242007
Birth: December 17, 1924
Death: February 18, 2007Los Angeles, CA, USA
1 year
son
Fred Joe
文焜
19252018
Birth: December 24, 1925Zhongshan, CHN
Death: March 9, 2018
Family with PANG YatNgan
himself
139240061-1926.jpg
朝佐
18811965
Birth: between June 7, 1881 and June 14, 1884龙头环, 石岐, 香山, 广东, CHN
Death: about 1965Los Angeles, CA, USA
wife
續 (续) 續 (续)1923
son
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Note: Only place where my grandfather's Zi name is displayed
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Note: Only place where my grandfather's Zi name is displayed
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Steamship Voyage

Jue Family Steamship Voyages 1874 to 1918

In this post  I will discuss the transpacific steamships which carried Jue Joe and later his family from China to the United States.  Jue Joe emigrated to America in 1874 securing a position as a cabin boy onboard a steamship. He was 18 years old . At the time the Pacific Mail Steamship Company had regular bimonthly trips between San Francisco and Hong Kong with a stop in Yokohama Japan. The voyage took about five weeks.Crews were composed of a majority of Chinese men with American ship officers.   At the time Jue Joe emigrated to America he would have travelled on one of four trans oceanic wooden side paddlewheel steamships that were operating that year. The ships were the  sister ships the Great Republic , the China , and Japan  and  another similar paddlewheeler , the Alaska.  Another sister ship , the America  been lost in a maritime accident in 1872.

 

Great Republic 1867 1878 sold to P.B. Cornwall not renamed, 1879 wrecked on Sand Island, Columbia River Bar.


Here is some details of the Steamship "Great Republic".
"The vessel measured a massive 360 feet (109.73 meters) in length and 48 feet 6 inches (14.78 meters) in breadth. The two enormous paddle wheels spanned a full 40 feet (12.19) Great Republic’s engines had a single cylinder that was 105 inches (2.67 meters) in diameter with the piston reaching a twelvefoot (3.66 meters) stroke. Horatio Allen, the president of the Novelty Iron Works, actually held a luncheon party for twenty-two individuals within one of the cylinders as it lay on its side! Steam was fed into the cylinder via four horizontal tubular boilers which in turn were heated by four furnaces each, making a total of sixteen furnaces. Each furnace had a grate surface area of 560 square feet (170.69 meters), making the total heating surface area 15,100 square feet (4602.48 meters).106meters) in diameter.
The massive engines powered the equally enormous paddlewheels which measured 40 feet (12.19 meters) in diameter and carried thirty-four buckets.107 In addition to the powerful engine, all of the China liners carried a full complement of sails. Great Republic, as well as the rest of its sister ships, were bark-rigged, three-masted vessels. Though the ships were intended to rely upon their engines, steam engineering had not been fully refined to the point where complete trust could be placed in the engines. This was proven during a voyage when the Great Republic broke its paddle shaft and had to complete the rest of the voyage solely on sail power.

The ship was capable of carrying 250 cabin passengers and 1,500 passengers in steerage.118 Cabin passengers likened their furnishings to those of drawing rooms ashore and claimed that they were only surpassed by the finest accommodations found on Hudson River and Long Island Sound steamers. Chinese passengers remained below deck in steerage and never ventured on to the deck.

"You never see one of them on deck.”... wrote one first class passenger Hubner.
 Later in his journey, Hubner ventured below decks with the captain into the steerage area. "The Chinese quarter is on the lower deck. We have about 800 on board. They are all in their berths, smoking and talking and enjoying the rare pleasure in their lives of being able to spend five weeks in complete idleness. In spite of the great number of men penned into so comparatively small a space, the ventilation is so well managed that there is is neither closeness nor bad smells. The captain inspects every hole and corner-literally everything- and everywhere we found the same extraordinary cleanliness. One small space is reserved for the opium-eaters or smokers, and we saw these victims of a fatal habit, some eagerly inhaling the poison, others already feeling its effects.

William H. Seward, an American traveler who ventured across the Pacific aboard China in 1870, recorded a similar observation."In steerage there are five hundred Chinese returning home. They pay less than half price, and are fed with the simple fare of their country.Knowing no use of beds, they sleep on the floor. In the middle of the cabin they have made, with canvas, a dark room for opium-smoking.When on deck, they appear neatly clad, and amuse themselves with unintelligible and apparently interminable games of chance "

Despite being colored by the dominant racism of the time, both of these accounts relate interesting facts concerning life in Chinese steerage. Though not luxurious, accommodation in steerage quarters was simple and apparently not unpleasant" http://anthropology.tamu.edu/papers/Roberts-MA2008.pdf
 

 

Alaska 1868 1879 used as a hulk and store ship, 1885 ?

 

 

 

 

Chinese Emigration to America—Sketch on Board the Pacific Mail Steamship Alaska

"White steerage passengers paid higher fares than the Chinese, in part to cover the cost of more expensive American food. Wealthy Chinese merchants were free to cross the Pacific in first class, but most of them traveled in steerage where familiar food was available on the long voyage." 

Auntie Soo Yin: "Jue Joe worked in First-Class, but I think he slept in "Steerage" with the Chinese at night. Although the ship may have had special quarters for service workers, I recall Ah Gung saying that Jue Joe "...slept on the wooden floor of the ship with lots of other Chinese." I can imagine how awed an 18-year old like Jue Joe must have felt as he stepped aboard this huge state-of-the-art ship to work as a cabin boy. What an opportunity for a kid from rural Sum Gong Village! And landing in SF, he had acquired the necessary skills that employers in America were looking for: An ability to interact with westerners and a resume with proven skills. His mother Lee Shee gave him 16-lbs. of rice for his long and arduous transpacific journey, and when he landed, he had less than a pound of rice left. Maybe there were no dining facilities for steerage folks and you had to supply your own food. I would think, however, that Jue Joe was able to supplement his diet as he had access to the kitchen pantry as a cabin boy. I wonder how he got the job? Who in Sum Gong had such connections to recommend him?"

 Here is a photo of the Steamship Alaska after it ran aground in Hong Kong during a typhoon in December 1874. It really gives a sense of the massive size of these wooden paddle steamers.  You can see two men standing on the deck at the stern of the ship.



After making his fortune in America, Jue Joe returned to China in 1902 married and had two sons before returning to America in 1906 leaving his family in China.  Immigration documents reveal that he travelled back to America aboard the newly launched grand steamship  S.S. Mongolia which had had been put into service in 1904 only two years before Jue Joe booked passage.
Here is a postcard of the ship and below that a photo of the ship . 

 


“The S.S. Mongolia, recently completed by the New York Shipbuilding Co., of Camden, N.J., for the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, made her trial trip successfully January 27, 1904. The ship is the largest yet completed in America. “The Mongolia, and her sister ship, the Manchuria, were originally contracted for by the Atlantic Transport Line, but were subsequently taken over by the Pacific Mail Company and modified slightly for their trade on the Pacific, between San Francisco and the ports in Japan and China … The speed attained at trial was 16 knots. Provision is made for 350 first-class passengers. The crew will consist of 200 people. Chinese steerage accommodations on the upper deck provide for 1,300; this space is available for cargo when not so occupied.” – Journal of the American Society of Naval Engineers, Volume 16, by L.D. Lovekin, Esq., February 1904

From the wiki: “SS Mongolia was a 13,369-ton passenger-and-cargo liner originally built for Pacific Mail Steamship Company in 1904. She later sailed as USS Mongolia (ID-1615) for the U.S. Navy during World War I, as SS President Fillmore for the Dollar Line (1921-1938), and as SS Panamanian for Cia Transatlantica Centroamericano (1940-1946).
 

Mongolia 1904 1929 renamed President Fillmore for Dollar Line, 1938 transferred from Dollar Line to American President Line same name, 1940 sold to Wallem & Co., Panama renamed Panamanian, 1947 scrapped at Shanghai.


The "Columbia" was one of three sister ships that were purchased from another shipping line by the Pacific Mail Steamship line and were repurposed to transpacific oceanic ships after serving as coastal pacific steamers serving South and Central America and the west coast of the United States. In 1918, Jue Joe finally arranged passage for his wife Leong Shee and his sons, San Tong , and San You aboard the "Columbia" from Hong Kong to San Francisco. After arriving in San Francisco the family was detained at Angel Island and interrogated before being admitted to the United States.

Auntie Soo Yin:  "Posie (Leong Shee), San Tong and his brother traveled "First Class" aboard their ship to San Francisco. Jue Joe wanted his family to enjoy the luxury of a first-class cabin, and have the best in food and service. Ah Gung(San Tong) told me about an incident he had in the privileged dining room. After ordering his first American breakfast of bacon and eggs, the Chinese waiter asked him if he wanted "toashee" with his eggs. Ah Gung didn't know what "toashee" meant. And the waiter repeated himself many times. Finally, the waiter became so frustrated that he motioned to a table that had a piece of "toast" on a plate, and he said, "You don't know 'toashee?' Beats me!" The conversation between Ah Gung and the waiter had all been in Cantonese, except for the waiter's Anglo-slang word, "toashee." Ah Gung enjoyed telling this story!"
 


 

Attached is  a copy of the ships manifest for cabin 10 on the SS Columbia during the Jue Family voyage in 1918. The cabin had four people. Since each stateroom had enough room to contain "two lower beds" , This room must have had two bunk beds. The Jue family shared their cabin with a woman named Quai Ying Lee who was as far as we know was not a family member or friend .
Click the image to inspect in more detail. Interestingly,  further research reveals that the name Quai Ying Lee was used on multiple other occasions by women immigrating to San Francisco from Hong Kong and there is no further evidence of the name in any census records thereafter leading us to assume this was a paper identity.  More on paper identities here.



Colombia (2) 1915 ex- Colombia built for Koninklijke West Indische Maildienst, 1915 purchased not renamed, 1925 to Panama Mail SS Co., 1931 stranded on Margarita Island, Baja California and lost.